Throughout the course of time, there have been many people that have delivered impactful speeches. However, among these speeches, there are a few that left an impact that transcended the time of which they were delivered, and continue to resonate with people today. One such speech was delivered in 1963 by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr, called “I Have a Dream.” He delivered this speech during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, and it defined one of the most critical moments of the American Civil Rights Movement. Though this powerful address was intended to bring about change, it also outlines several tenets of effective communication that go beyond activism. MLK is revered as being one of the most influential activists to have walked the face of the planet due to his advocating for non-violence and encouragement to challenge the norms of society. Let’s analyze some of the aspects of this speech, and further identify what made MLK such an effective communicator.
1. Clarity of Purpose
From as early as the beginning of his speech, MLK sets a clear and compelling purpose: a call to action for equality and justice for African Americans. A key aspect of any effective speech or presentation is when the spokesperson is able to outline the purpose of the message early on, so the audience is more inclined to follow along. MLK steers clear of any ambiguity during the speech, and illustrates his vision with utmost conviction, making the significance of his message clear. When the speaker is able to align the message with the intended goal, then the audience will be able to catch on to this connection and further spread the message.
2. Emotional Appeal
When you watch footage of the “I Have a Dream” speech, the first thing you notice is the overwhelming amount of emotion shown in Dr. King’s delivery, and the hundreds of people stood listening. Cries and cheers of admiration for Dr. King surrounded the Lincoln memorial. This connection on a deeper level with the audience is something everyone should aspire for when delivering a speech or presentation. By using vivid descriptions and powerful imagery, MLK is able to illustrate a desirable future of racial equality in America. At one point in the speech, MLK states, “I have a dream that one day... little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers." This depiction of unity is able to create a perfect picture for the audience to connect to, and speaks on the effectiveness when alluding to the audience. If you want to create a dynamic relationship with your audience members, you should play on values or ideals both of you share.
3. Effective Use of Rhetorical Devices
Using rhetorical devices frequently in a speech can help add depth and resonance to your message. MLK mastered the use of these devices, and they played a pivotal role in his establishment as a public figure. Take for example, his implementation of repetition. He repeatedly declares, “I have a dream that… I have a dream that… I have a dream that…” With words like “sweltering summer,” we see alliteration, and statements such as “one hundred years later… Now is the time … We can never be satisfied,” there is a clear use of parallelism. MLK has an immense understanding on how these devices when used in certain instances can create rhythmic and memorable cadence. Through the usage of these devices, even the simplest of messages can be perceived as engaging and appealing to the ear.
4. Inclusive Language
As mentioned earlier, MLK makes frequent use of inclusive language to bring about an overarching theme of collectiveness. As opposed to just focusing on African Americans, MLK made it a priority to show that achieving harmony is a collective effort between everyone. He states, “this is OUR hope, with this faith WE will be able to work TOGETHER, to pray TOGETHER, to struggle TOGETHER.” The use of inclusive pronouns such as “we,” “our,” and “together,” assisted MLK in unifying the masses and encouraging them to take a stance in favor of their own interest, or rather the collective interest of people. In his case, this would be justice and equality, but in our own presentations and speeches, we must identify a unifying factor that evokes a positive call to action for a greater good among our audience.
5. Vivid Language and Imagery
The vivid language and imagery scattered throughout the “I Have a Dream” speech are what made MLK’s vision come to life. During the civil rights movement, unity was very hard to achieve, and to this date remains absent in certain situations. However, during the speech, MLK states “With this faith, we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood." This high level of personification showing the shambolic state of the country is what makes this speech one of the greatest takeaways of American history. You get insight into how dramatic an issue of division among races can be and what this solution could do for the betterment of everyone. Similarly in our own speeches, rather than narrowing in on specificity and describing an issue from a literal sense, describing it in vivid visual perspective can assist in getting the audience more in tune with the message.
6. Inspiring Call to Action
At the end of the speech, MLK concludes with a great call to action that ignited a determined spirit among those that were listening. He declares, “let freedom ring… and when this happens, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God’s children… will be able to join hands and sing… ‘free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!’” This cry of emotion inspires all American people to rise against injustice and fight together for the pursuit of equality. This ability to fuel a movement and get people to act as one is something we should aim to do when delivering a speech in presentation. Attempting to get one person to initiate action is not as valuable as getting a group of people to be willing to do something together. Essentially, you want your message to foster cooperation among others.
Through this breakdown analysis of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr’s “I Have a Dream” speech, we can understand how powerful effective communication can be. By making the purpose of your message clear, appealing to the audience’s emotions, and using rhetorical devices skillfully, you can ensure that you are heard and understood. Imagery and vivid language can also help amplify the message you’re aiming to convey and ultimately get the response you had hoped for. MLK will forever be remembered as one that was able to captivate hearts, change minds, and ignite change.
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